However, some of the most commonly used chemicals in dyeing include: Sodium carbonate (soda ash): This is used to raise the pH of the dye bath and helps to fix the dye onto the fabric. Sodium chloride (table salt): This is used to promote even dye penetration and improve color fastness. Acetic acid : This is used as a mordant to help the dye bond with the fabric. Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda): This is used to adjust the pH of the dye bath and can also be used as a stripping agent to remove existing dyes from fabric. Urea: This is used to increase the solubility of certain dyes and can also help to prevent uneven dyeing. Various types of dyes: These can include natural dyes, such as indigo and madder, as well as synthetic dyes, such as azo dyes and vat dyes. Overall, dyeing is a complex process that requires careful selection and use of various chemicals to achieve the desired results.